Haliplanella lineata

Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Actinaria
Species name: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill 1869)
Synonyms: Haliplanella luciae (Verrill 1898); has also been placed in the genera Sagartia, Diadumene and Aiptasiomorpha
Common name: Orange-striped sea anemone
Date of introduction and origin
Haliplanella lineata is native to the Pacific. It was probably introduced from Japan into the Atlantic towards the end of the 19th century (Manuel 1988).
Method of introduction
It was probably carried on ships' hulls (Stephenson 1935; Gollasch & Riemann-Zürneck 1996), and transported on oysters or other shellfish.
Reasons for success
The adult anemone is the migrating phase; it shows extreme tolerance towards abiotic factors (Gollasch & Riemann-Zürneck 1996); and it can frequently reproduce by asexual, longitudinal fission and pedal laceration (Slick 1991).
Rate of spread and methods involved
It has an unknown rate of spread. Local colonisation is achieved by fission, and remote spread through transport on ships' hulls.
It is distributed around Britain and throughout continental Europe (Stephenson, 1935 & Williams 1973), generally occurring in estuaries, ports and harbours on major shipping routes.
Factors likely to influence spread and distribution
Its distribution is likely to have been influenced by shipping. However, its extension into brackish water is limited by its tolerance of low salinities which, below 12%o are ultimately lethal (Slick 1991). Haliplanella lineata seems to be associated almost exclusively with mussels or oysters, even on ships' hulls (Gollasch & Riemann-Zürneck 1996).
Effects on the environment
Effects on commercial interests
It can possibly be a nuisance as a fouling organism.
Control methods used and effectiveness
None used.
Beneficial effects
None known.
The species is now a common brackish-water anemone in Britain (Barnes 1994).
Barnes, R.S.K. 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Gollasch, S., & Riemann-Zürneck, K. 1996. Transoceanic dispersal of benthic macrofauna: Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1898) (Anthozoa, Actinaria) found on a ship's hull in a ship yard dock in Hamburg Harbour, Germany. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 50: 253-258.
Manuel, R.L. 1988. British Anthozoa (Coelenterata: Octocorallia and Hexacorallia): keys and notes for the identification of the species. 2nd ed. Leiden, Linnean Society of London, Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association. (Synopses of the British fauna (New series), No. 18).
Slick, J.M. 1991. A functional biology of sea anemones. London, Chapman & Hall.
Stephenson, T.A. 1935. The British sea anemones, Vol. 2. London,The Ray Society.
Williams, R.B. 1973. The significance of saline lagoons as refuges for rare species. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society, 22: 387-392.