The indirect effects of pesticides on birds
Campbell, L. & Cooke, A.S.
Summarises the evidence that pesticide use indirectly affects bird populations, particularly through their food supplies; based on a review compiled for the Dept. of Environment and the JNCC by a consortium of conservation and research organisations.


Concern about the impact of widespread use of pesticides on birds has shifted from the direct effects (such as mortality or impaired breeding productivity) of their legal use in agriculture to first the illegal use of such products, and then to the potential indirect effects of legal usage.

In 1995 the Department of the Environment (now the Department for the Environment Food and Rural Affairs) and English Nature (now Natural England)(on behalf of JNCC) commissioned a review of the indirect effects of pesticides on farmland birds.

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ISBN 1 86107 441 7
Please cite as: Campbell, L. & Cooke, A.S., (1997), The indirect effects of pesticides on birds, ISBN 1 86107 441 7