Transport and communication

Car and pedestrian © Antonio Sariñana




Moving things around uses energy.  Throughout history, human societies have been very clever in harnessing energy to serve various purposes.  However, this is not without cost, both economic and environmentalflying gull © Nick Bradsworth









For wild animals, energy is costly because it must be replenished by food: the more energy an animal expends the more it must find to eat.  It should be no surprise that many animals are adapted to move as efficiently as possible.  Human designers continue to learn from the solutions biodiversity has developed, and have created strong and aerodynamic designs inspired by particular organisms.



schooling fish © Oktaviani Marvikasari




Communication is essentially the movement of information.  Again, efficient communication can help organisms to survive: whether at the scale of the group, like a school of fish or a colony of ants, or of the individual, like an animal's immune system.  Information technology engineers have created more efficient communication networks having learned from the communication systems that occur in nature.printed circuit board © MaxCarnage